Nov 14, 2010

Antibody- is naturally a SUPERANTIBODY

Antibodies protect us from cell infections working extracellularly [1], by blocking the viruses and flagging the pathogens which are eaten by special immune cells [3]. This procedure is known as neutralization [2]. It was believed that viruses can take shelter (by entering in the cell) from immune system [2].


A super-antibody was proposed having increased effectiveness against pathogens. So, chemical modifications were suggested which would allow antibodies to enter in cell, tag the pathogen and kill them. This antibody (hypothetical) was given name super-antibody. The parameters which determine the effectiveness of it depends upon the mode of entry to cell, the concentration and stability inside the cell. They were expected to be effective against both viral as well as cancer diseases [5].

In 1946, MRC established a common cold unit in Former Military Hospital at Wiltshire. It continued research for 40 years on common cold by collaboration with volunteers. Next was to perform clinical trials on new treatments of common cold. So, common cold unit re-established in Cardiff University in year 1988 [1].


A research led by Leo James and Coworkers [3], published at November 2, 2010, in journal proceedings of National Academy of Sciences. In this research Adenovirus, the causative agent of upper respiratory tract infections, was grown on Petriplates containing human cells [2]. This fundamental research was to understand the way immune system fight against viral diseases [1].images

It was elucidated that before virus invade into cell, antibodies cling to it. Inside the cell antibodies call another component TRIM-21 (Triple Motif Containing 21) [3], which escort them to “Disposal system” of the cell [1, 2]. This cell recycler is renowned proteosome [3] which is cellular structure (containing proteases). This all, TRIM-21 binding and escorting to destination, happen before virus hijack the cell [1]. Increase in viral destruction observed by increase in concentration of this protein [2]. So, it was practically proved that this protein has some role in viral destruction.

It is believed that this research will help in infections such as common cold, winter vomiting bug and gastroenteritis [1]. Studies say Rotavirus, causative agent of severe Diarrhea, can be killed within 2 hours [4]. Unfortunately, this cannot be applied on broad spectrum of viruses, only non-enveloped viruses are susceptible. It is effective against influenza virus because influenza virus shed the envelop just before entering the cell [2]. This new finding has aroused a hope among researchers that a spray or inhaler can be produced which will enhance the viral destruction [4]. Same MRC group is working on animal system now [2].

It is speculated that enhancement of this process can lead to novel sort of antiviral drug. Dr. Jordon Orange, immunologist at Children hospital says that its interesting, exciting and expanding understanding about way antibody works [2]. But in the nut shell, establishing treatment from in vitro experiments is a distant dream yet [1].


  1.  A cure for the common cold? Excuse me while I sneeze.

  2. Body's hidden defense against colds uncovered

  3. The immunology paper that won't cure the common cold 

  4. Cure for the Common Cold

  5. Could this lead to a cure for the common cold?

A Biology Quiz

Oct 23, 2010

Broccoli – A Food and A Medicine

Broccoli and Its Nutritional Value

Broccoli is a high fiber and cruciferous vegetable which is also known as super food [3,4]. Its green florets produce sulforaphan, a compound which is highly heat stable and potent anticancer agent [1].




It is believed that there are enzymes present which are responsible for production of sulforaphan in Broccoli. So, they should be inactivated during cooking and result should be in no production of given compound. But experiments proved that it was a misconception [2].

Broccoli and Its Medicinal Application

During a research at University of Illinois, Elizabeth Jeffery, professor of Human Nutrition found that lower gut microbial flora was actively releasing sulforaphan from broccoli and absorbing [1,2]. Experiment was performed using rat as test animal and work was published in Journal of Food and Function [5]. Elizabeth believe using probiotics with prebiotics (broccoli) enhance proliferation of microbes occur. So taking broccoli with yogurt can prove to be a good choice [2,4]. It will help to increase the activity of both broccoli as well as colon inhabiting bacteria against cancer cells [1].

Scope of Study

The importance of above mentioned study is that the intestinal region examined was strikingly similar with human colon which indicated our system will work similar way [6]. Broccoli is already believed to be effective against colon, breast and prostate cancer [3,5]. Studies earlier in 2010 at University of Michigan has proved that concentrated doses of sulforaphan are effective for treatment of breast cancer [6].


  1. Scientists Attempt To Boost Broccoli’s Ability To Fight Cancer
  2. Research Finds that Broccoli’s Anti-Cancer Potential Can Be Boosted

  3. Broccoli can help prevent bowel cancer

  4. Probiotics in yogurt boost benefits of broccoli

  5. How broccoli can lower the risk of bowel cancer - even if it is overcooked

  6. Tweak Could Enhance Broccoli's Cancer-Busting Potential

Apr 10, 2010

Important News to All Friends

Dear Friends!

I am feeling pleasure to introduce that I have launched a new group on FaceBook, so that our blog continue spreading the knowledge. For this purpose, please spread this message to promote our group. Discuss the topics, news about modern achievements, articles, books and share your valuable remarks. The link of group is given below.!/group.php?gid=113583648659879&ref=ts

thanks in advance for promoting the group. Regards!

Mazhar Hussain

Microbiology & Molecular Genetics

Apr 9, 2010

Probiotics and Their Benefits to Health

There are thousands of things which are eatable included yogurts, cheese and pickles. If we try to see them in history of mankind then their roots will be very ancient indicating that man is biotechnologist from very beginning of civilization. So, today Stonyfield Farm is famous for yogurt, Mt. Olive Pickle Company, Inc is largest company making pickles and McCadam Cheese Company Inc is one of the oldest companies in new York in the field of cheese industry.

Probiotics are simply defined as "microorganisms in food which provide benefit beyond nutritional value." In this they are not acting as food but helping the digestive tract to digest the food. Lactobacillus is most common probiotic present in yogurt and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is present in bakery products.

Only that organism will be considered as potential probiotic which has following features:

  1. The organism which can sustain its viability in the desired food product.
  2. Organism titer in food should be high
  3. It can resist environmental conditions inside digestive tract. (Gastric juices etc)
  4. It must be competent to stick with the walls of digestive system.
  5. It must have ability to change the environmental conditions.
  6. And last but not least important, it must not be pathogenic.

In Food industry, mostly it is being used for following purposes:

  1. To preserve food (e.g. cheese)
  2. To give flavor to some product (Acetaldehyde)

Its benefits in food are more evident than expected. They are providing benefits related to immunity, gastrointestinal tract, cancer and HIV. We will discuss them in detail in later post.